Types of mooring systems include:
Typically oil tanker conversions that require multi-anchor catenary moorings to accommodate motions and absorb loads, so flexible risers are required. Grouped anchors provide less riser interference and result in lower mooring loads, redundancy, and better resistance to progressive failure.
Used for oil and gas systems, and for offshore wind and hydrokinetic systems, TLP’s are buoyant platforms held to the seabed by tendons - usually steel pipe. Surge stiffness is a function of excess buoyancy and the angle of the tension, not tendon stiffness.
Anchors are best categorized by the loading they are designed to withstand: horizontal, vertical, or somewhere in between. The choices have significant seabed footprint implications. Drag embedment anchors require horizontal pull for setting and low mooring angle in service.
Driven piles are used for both downward and uplifting vertical loads and for side loads. Suction piles are the predominant mooring and foundation system in the deepwater O&G sector, and they have the advantages of easy installation and removal, low noise, and leveling to within one degree.
Good, general purpose anchor that works in most soil. Rough underside is useful. Material options - concrete, granite, scrap steel.